Quality Day Celebrations

1 A view of the audience
2 Shri. K. R. Mohan Ananthanarayanan, Vice-chairman NIQR Trivandrum branch delivering the lecture
3 '8 Disciplines Problem Solving Methodology'
4 Honouring of the speaker
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Quality Day Celebrations

NIQR Trivandrum Branch celebrated Quality Day on 29th November 2018, Thursday at Hotel Pankaj, Statue, Trivandrum.

Shri. C. Athi Pagavan, Chairman NIQR Trivandrum Branch welcomed the gathering which included 40 NIQR Members and guests.

Quality Day 2018 lecture was delivered by Shri. K. R. Mohan Ananthanarayanan, Vice-chairman NIQR Trivandrum branch on the topic “8 Disciplines Problem Solving Methodology”.

8D methodology focuses on analyzing the root causes for non-conformities on organizational processes and products in order to eliminate the causes and to improve the productivity. It was a method developed by the automobile giant Ford Motors and is now followed by many industries including aerospace manufacturing.

The lecture started from the basic approaches of inspection and quality control and the need for accurate root cause analysis for problems so that it can be prevented from recurring. This was illustrated with interesting examples like the viral case of buying a vanilla flavor of ice cream and the car not starting. The case highlighted the need to observe and record in minute details of what happened so as to reach the conclusion that it is not the vanilla flavor that prevented the car from starting but the vapor lock in the engine did not get enough time to dissipate.

Root cause analysis is not new but what makes 8D more relevant is the increased supply chain environment with assembly and integration of complex systems like in the aerospace and exacting customer and safety requirements. With many sub systems and quality control at each stage there can be scenario where in a failure can penetrate the screens of quality as given in the fig 1.

Failure progression
Failure prevention systems

A defect of this nature is not easily found out by the normal root cause analysis and has to involve many in the supply chains. Giving an example of plating wherein cracks occur on a later date due to hydrogen diffusion is often detected in assembly stage. The root cause analysis need to involve all the suppliers. In depth analysis can lead to solutions not just having baking but for the required hours of backing. It is also important to have backing within a specified period after plating. This is more critical in space components where degassing occurs in vacuum affecting the electronic components that can lead to failure of mission.

Different problem solving with root cause analysis were explained. Following are the main methods discussed

  1. Drill Down Techniques
  2. The Four Frame Model
  3. The Cynefin Framework
  4. Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving -8D

The eight disciplines (8D) model is a problem solving approach evolved over the periods by different techniques like QC circles, 7 steps of solution. Its purpose is to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems, and it is useful in product and process improvement. Developed in Ford company and used widely in automotive and aerospace industries. It follows PDCA and is similar to DMAIC. It is more customer driven than QC circles and provides containment / mitigation measures. It is mandatory to carryout 8D analysis for aerospace as per AS13000 standard.

Various aerospace standards for problem resolution and quality management were highlighted. They are

  • AS13000: Problem Solving Requirements for Suppliers
  • AS13001: Supplier Self Release
  • AS13002: Requirements for Developing and Qualifying Alternate Inspection Frequency Plans
  • AS13003: Measurement Systems Analysis Requirements for the Aero Engine Supply Chain
  • AS13004: Process Risk Mitigation – Publication planned
  • AS 13005 : Quality Audit Requirements   
  • AS 13006:Process control

Following steps involved in 8D methodology were explained with examples.

  • D0 – Prepare for the 8D Process

D0 precedes the formal steps D1–D8. It involves incident reporting that need not even be a failure. This is important since very minor indication in process need to be faithfully reported so that a failure can be nipped in the bud.

At this time a quality alert is generated and vigorous containment effort is started to isolate the problem from the customer. Management will decide  whether it is significant enough to launch an 8D problem-solving team. The 8D effort requires significant time and resources, management support allocating time, and team authorization, all of which are essential for the success of the team.

  • D1- Establish Team- Knowledge of process, function, assessment. It is not QC alone!
  • D2 – Define and Describe the Problem- IS/ IS Not, Recurring, Multiple process- Who cares about the problem? What happens if the problem is not solved? Is it really a problem? This has to be understood at various level and should have consensus for effective problem resolution
  • D3 – Develop interim containment plan; implement and verify interim actions
  • D4 – Define and Verify Root Cause and Escape Point (Why it was not detected)
  • D5 – Choose and Verify Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs) for Root Cause and Escape Point
  • D6 – Implement and Validate Permanent Corrective Actions (PCAs)
  • D7 – Prevent Recurrence
  • D8 – Recognize Team and Individual Contributions. It improves the morale and commitment.

All these stages have to be properly documented and AS 13000 has prescribed formats. Escape points where the defect was not understood or detected have to be found out. Awareness has to be created about the issues at Operator and QC inspection level so that a commitment to prevent recurrence is culturally built.

All said done it is found that root cause analysis is more superficial in many areas and this needs attention of the top management. Certain samples of 8D reports were also shown.

Lecture ended with a quote by Abraham Maslow ‘If the only tool you have is hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail’.

Shri. P. Muthuganapathy, Secretary, NIQR Trivandrum Branch proposed the vote of thanks.